Systemic Racism by the Numbers via @OCASI_policy

Systemic Racism by the Numbers via @OCASI_policy


27.4% of carding incidents in Toronto was for Black people (while Black people represent 8.1% of the population in Toronto).

Source: “Carding drops but proportion of blacks stopped by Toronto police rises” by By Jim Rankin, Patty Winsa, Andrew Bailey and Hidy Ng. July 26, 2014. Toronto Star.

Black youth (age 15-24) are 2.5 more likely to be stopped by police compared to white male counterparts.

Source: “Race Matters: Blacks documented by police at high rate” by Jim Rankin. February 6, 2010. Toronto Star.

Traffic Stops

Between 2013 and 2015 in Ottawa, incidences of traffic stops for Black Drivers constituted about 8.8% of the total stops, while Black drivers represent less than 4% of the total driving population in Ottawa. Black drivers were therefore “stopped 2.3 times more than what you would expect based on their population.”

Source: Race Data and Traffic Stops in Ottawa, 2013-2015: A Report on Ottawa and the Police Districts by Lorne Foster, Les Jacobs and Bobby Siu. Submitted to Ottawa Police Services Board and Ottawa Police Service. October 2016.

Fatal Police Force/Shooting

While Black people represented only 6.7% of the population in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area, they represented almost 50% of all deaths caused by police use of force and two-thirds (66.7%) of all deaths caused by police shootings between 2000 and 2006.

Source: Police Use of Force in Ontario: An Examination of Data from the Special Investigations Unit. By Scot Wortley. Research Project Conducted on behalf of the African Canadian Legal Clinic for Submission to the Ipperwash Inquiry. 2006.


In 2015, the federal incarceration rate for Black persons was three times their representation rate in general society.

Between 2005 and 2015, the Black inmate population grew by 69%

Source: Office of the Correctional Investigator. Annual Report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator 2014-2015. June 26, 2015

Hate Crime

In 2013, there were 585 police-reported hate crimes motivated by race or ethnicity. Black populations continued to be the most highly targeted group among these incidents, accounting for 44% of racial hate crimes (or 22% of all hate crimes).

Source: “Police reported hate crime in Canada” by Mary Allen. Juristat. June 19, 2015. Statistics Canada.

Unemployment & Low income

The Unemployment rate is 13% for Black people in Ontario, compared to 7.5% for non-racialized groups. Meaning, Black people have an unemployment rate 73% higher than non-racialized people in Ontario in 2010.

In 2010, 25.1 percent of the Black population was living in low income while 11.6 percent of the non-racialized population was living in low income.

Source: The Colour Coded Labour Market By The Numbers: A National Household Survey Analysis by Sheila Block, Grace-Edward Galabuzi and Alexandra Weiss. 2014. The Wellesley Institute.

Unemployment rate for racialized youth in Toronto CMA was 23.9% compared to 19.5% for non-racialized youth. The unemployment rate for Black youth in Toronto and Ontario stood at 28%, which is two times higher than the national average of 14.3%.

Source: National Household Survey, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 99-012-X2011038. 2011. Statistics Canada.

Impact on Health

Black Canadians are significantly more likely to report diabetes and hypertension than White Canadians – this is potentially due to everyday racism which induces chronic stress.

Black women were more likely than White women to report diabetes and hypertension (Black women’s odd ratio was 2.74 for diabetes and 2.52 for hypertension).

Black men were more likely than White men to report diabetes and hypertension (Black men odds ratio was 1.95 for diabetes and 1.41 for hypertension).

Source: “Black–White Health Inequalities in Canada” in J Immigrant Minority Health (2016) 18:51–57 by Gerry Veenstra and Andrew C. Patterson. 2016.

Children in Care

While 8.5% of Toronto’s population is Black, 31% of the children in care in Toronto in 2014 were Black.

Source: Addressing Disproportionality, Disparity and Discrimination in Child Welfare. Data on Services Provided to Black African Caribbean Canadian Families and Children. 2015. Children’s Aid Society of Toronto.

In addition to disproportionality, African Canadians also report that they experience
disparities after they come into contact with the child welfare system, in that they are
treated differently than their White counterparts, don’t have access to culturally
appropriate services, and experience poorer outcomes than their White counterparts.

Source: One Vision One Voice: Changing the Ontario child welfare system to better serve African Canadians. Practice Framework Part 1: Research Report. Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies. September 2016

Suspension from School

Suspension rates from high school are highest for Black students (8.6%) compared to all other racial groups (2.9% for White students), according to the Toronto District School Board 2011-2012 Student and Parent Census.

Source: Facts: Suspension Rates by Students’ Demographic and Family Background Characteristics. Caring and Safe Schools, Issue 3. June 2013. Toronto District School Board.


Data from Ethnic Diversity Survey, 49.6 percent  of Blacks reported experiencing discrimination compared to 35.9 percent of racialized people in general, and  10.6 percent of Whites .

Source: “Racial Inequality, Social Cohesion and Policy Issues in Canada” by Jeffrey G. Reitz and Rupa Banerjee. Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada. January 11, 2007. Institute for Research on Public Policy.

When looking at Toronto level Ethnic Diversity Survey data on discrimination, 55 percent of Blacks reported experiencing discrimination.

Source: “Geographies of Discrimination: Variations in Perceived Discomfort and Discrimination in Canada’s Gateway Cities” by Brian Ray and Valerie Preston. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies Vol. 7 , Iss. 3,2009. September 8, 2009

Source: Systemic Racism by the Numbers | Toronto for All